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Michael Fielding Garber

Art, Architecture & Design

» Michael


On a May evening the sky shines bright and clear — daubed with cotton-bud cloud.

On a May evening long-forgot close acquaintance is remade —  pregnant with expectation.

On a May evening the canopied lanes sigh — filtered in newly-verdant light.

On a May evening benign breezes tickle tender-young corn fields growing strong — rippling with expectation.

On a May evening the sheep parsley-powdered country lanes make-up — bewigged for the evening’s dance.

On a May evening at dusk-fall the graceful swift-winged dance begins — fluttering with expectation.

On a May evening memories of purple-tufted long grass linger — heavy with the promise of long, hot, summer days ahead.

View the poetry page for more about my poetry.

The proposed tower at the Central Somers Town development within the London Borough of Camden highlights what is arguably a disjointed relationship between the Planning process and the protection of the setting of Listed buildings. The ongoing disagreement between Historic England and Camden — which has followed the Planning process and now has permission to proceed with the scheme((As part of the Planning process the views of Historic England were responded to in the document at this link:
With the scheme gaining permission to proceed from the Mayor of London, Historic England have now asked the Secretary of State to call-in the application.)) — highlights the shortcomings of what is effectively a reactive system.

In this case, the objection concerns the impact that the proposed tower would have on the setting of the Nash terraces in Regent’s Park. Historic England argues that populating the currently tower-free view would cause harm to the Grade I Listed Chester Terrace. Their terrace is low-rise, in common with this part of London, and Historic England argue that the view((The view can be seen via this link on Google Street View.)) should not include the tower.

There are two matters to be considered here: the curation of this particular view, and how the setting of Listed buildings is protected. The former finds its complexity in philosophical arguments, whilst the latter is complex in the administration required to implement protection — both also have to contend with politics.

Arguably it is because of the myriad political considerations that the Regent’s Park example is complex. Social benefit must be weighed up with harm to the historic environment — a finite and irreplaceable corpus. Two equally worthy outcomes become artificially presented as a binary choice. The difficult matter of setting precedents is clearly at play here — hence why Historic England and the Crown Estate must protect the environment of Regent’s park and perform their duties.

Perhaps the difficulty found in the current system is that the boundaries of when settings are affected are not adequately expressed. I would move that the terraces are just that – a boundary and part of the urban grain. In the twentieth century the urban grain goes up and down as well as across. Whilst guidance suggests where substantial harm may occur, it is still a matter of arguing reactively. What we need are proactive curtilages defining the setting of Listed Buildings.

This concept aligns with the process by which we take time to consider levels of significance and thresholds for harm — the Conservation Statement or, more thoroughly in a Conservation Management Plan. Both of these documents are regularly written to help understand and manage our heritage, and it is not inconceivable that what might be called a ‘curtilage of sensitivity’ could be included.

By submitting curtilages for approval and adoption by Historic England, these curtilages could form a useful resource for planning developments — thereby providing an informed basis upon which to argue whether a new building will harm the setting of a Listed building. Furthermore, by incorporating the curtilage into the process of writing statements and management plans, it would significantly reduce the cost to Historic England of setting up a register of such curtilages.

The historic environment remains a limited resource, but it is increasingly challenged by economic and social constraints which demand development. Carefully managing change and halting unsuitable development should not be incompatible. Today, arguments against development arise in reaction to pre-application advice or statutory consultation — thus leaving limited timeframes to react.

Some forward planning is provided in the protection of key views to historic landmarks,(( however, we should ask: is this is enough, and can the principals be applied more widely? Providing better tools to help all steak-holders plan development is one step towards improving the protection of historic buildings and their settings, and mitigating the impact of new buildings. A ‘curtilage of sensitivity’ is one way forward.

Image Credits:

Chester Terrace Gateway  –  © Copyright Mike Faherty and licensed for reuse under this Creative Commons Licence

The kiosk — an often humble yet vital piece of accommodation — affects our experience of entering a heritage site, and its presentation within. This article explores how a once-standardised feature of the heritage apparatus has become bespoke and asks whether a universal design is possible today?

Byland Abbey, ticket kiosk and setting
Byland Abbey, ticket kiosk and setting


In my thesis — A Prospect of Ruins – Discovery, exploration and contemplation — I ask how we address the ruin in its setting, and argue that our arrival is key. One of the most pressing impediments to our discovery of ruins in an eighteenth-century idiom is the ubiquitous visitor centre which has frequently supplanted ticket kiosks as the de facto entrance point to heritage sites.

Today one of the last vestiges of a once-simpler arrival at a monastic ruin forms part of the setting of Byland Abbey in Yorkshire. Here, in a simple kiosk, a custodian shelters from the elements — you buy your ticket, perhaps even a guidebook or restorative hot chocolate — you then visit the ruins. As Simon Thurley explains in his book Men from the Ministry, “Few of the many early custodians’ buildings remain today, but at Furness Abbey there is the sole survivor of a pre-war ticket office. Just large enough for one man and a small till, some postcards and guidebooks, the hut has its own fireplace and chimney, a generous amenity for its occupant.”((Thurley, Simon. Men from the Ministry: How Britain Saved Its Heritage. (London: Yale University Press, 2013). pp 159-160.))

The charming Arts-and-Crafts ticket office at Furness Abbey now stands ignored–superannuated by a (now) period-feature 1980s visitor centre — but it offers the tantalising prospect of its original purpose being reinstated, and the setting of the abbey to once again be appreciated on arrival. Macaulay reiterates the importance of setting, “So we have all felt and feel. … A good setting is, to the average ruin-seers, a good deal more important than interesting architecture; these need some background of knowledge; the pleasures of picturesque setting, only a simple sense of beauty.”((Macaulay, Rose. Pleasure of Ruins. Edited by Smith, Constance Babington. (London: Book Club Associates, 1977). p 133.))

1920s ticket office at Furness Abbey
1920s Office of Works ticket office, Furness Abbey

The Office of Works formula

The Office of Works (a forerunner to English Heritage) developed a strong aesthetic for their sites when Sir Frank Baines held the post of Chief Architect in the 1920s. From Thurley we learn that “Interventions were almost always of elm; [and that] walkways, staircases, handrails and barriers were all oak allowed to silver naturally and harmonise with the walls of the monuments.”((Thurley, Simon. Men from the Ministry: How Britain Saved Its Heritage. (London: Yale University Press, 2013). p160.))

Whilst almost all of the original Arts-and-Crafts style buildings may have disappeared from English Heritage sites, we find the Office of Works aesthetic lives on in the revival of unstained wood on todays’ kiosks.

An overview of kiosks

Twentieth-century Kiosks

Kiosk with turnstile, The Recreation Ground, Bath (Rwendland)
Kiosk with turnstile, The Recreation Ground, Bath (Rwendland)

This kiosk is one of a pair dating to c1900 and is Listed Grade II.((“1394518 – The National Heritage List for England | English Heritage”, Available at: [accessed January 28, 2015].)) It represents a design with is both functional and highly decorative. The kiosk provides shelter for the ticket-seller and a roof for the punter. Its flamboyance contrasts with the silvered Office of Works kiosk, and demands an appropriate setting such as a recreation or pleasure ground.

Tea kiosk, Caversham Court, Oxfordshire (Rose and Trev Clough)
Tea kiosk, Caversham Court, Oxfordshire (Rose and Trev Clough)

The use of the Arts and Crafts style for kiosks was not unique to the Office of Works. Indeed, this charming example from Caversham Court demonstrates the versatility of the Arts and Crafts style in being able to accommodate different uses whilst maintaining a contextually picturesque form.

Lutyens kiosks at Runnymede
Lutyens kiosks at Runnymede (Antony McCallum)

Lutyens was commissioned to design a number of buildings at Runnymede, including a pair of kiosks to flank the road, balanced at the far end of the meadows by a pair of lodges. These kiosks evoke a monumentality appropriate to their purpose as a funerary memorial.

Ticket office, Colbost Folk Museum (Leslie Barrie)
Ticket office, Colbost Folk Museum (Leslie Barrie)

The ticket office at Colbost Folk Museum in Inverness-shire demonstrates the picturesque style of kiosks, ramshackle constructions cobbled together to serve their purpose. Here, an upturned boat from the roof forms a quaint picture, but in other cases picturesque kiosks might be formed of unplanned wood and evoke the ‘primitive hut‘.

Commissioned kiosks at heritage sites

The Office of Works style kiosk fell out of favour after the Second World War, and a modern replacement was found with metal poles and plywood fascias. These in-turn yielded to functional derivatives of the Wendy house, garden sheds in effect, which provided a somewhat neutral contribution to the heritage site.

Ticket office, Old Sarum, Wiltshire (Graham Horn)
Ticket office, Old Sarum, Wiltshire (Graham Horn)

Utilitarian, and noncommittal to its setting, the ticket office at Old Sarum is an example of a shy response to the bombast which preceded it. Perhaps more at home alongside a paddock, this clapboard shed design is not uncommon at heritage sites.

Ticket Kiosk, Winkworth Arboretum, surrey (Andy Potter)
Ticket kiosk, Winkworth Arboretum, surrey (Andy Potter)

The ticket and information kiosk at Winkworth Arboretum is another utilitarian design. Its scale and form align it more towards a garden gazebo, however it is unchallenging and it succeeds in being neutral to its surroundings.

Entrance kiosk, Ickworth, Suffolk (Keith Evans)
Entrance kiosk, Ickworth, Suffolk (Keith Evans)

The entrance kiosk at Ickworth straddles the main drive, and as such needs to diminutive in scale. It too takes on the guise of a gazebo, however unlike the Winkworth Arboretum design, it contributes to its setting, and the steeper pitch of the roof and window details add charm.

Ticket kiosk, Hatchlands Park, Surrey (Andy Potter)
Ticket kiosk, Hatchlands Park, Surrey (Andy Potter)

It is clear that the gazebo form is an enduring design for kiosks, and we can see the octagonal plan shape is popular from the masonry Lutyens’ kiosks through to timber examples. The ticket kiosk at Hatchlings Park represents the more recent, and growing trend to return to a natural timber finish which the Office of Works identified as being aesthetically complementary to heritage sites. Coupled with quality construction and detailing, this is a successful model for kiosks.

Refreshment kiosk, Framlingham Castle, Suffolk
Refreshment kiosk, Framlingham Castle, Suffolk

The refreshment kiosk at Framingham Castle represents a mature design. Its setting within the bailey of the castle demanded good quality design, and detailing; and this level of finish provides an exemplar model which could easily be used at other heritage sites.

Bespoke kiosks to a contemporary design

Traditional designs generally fit in well at heritage sites, and this near-universal success clearly makes this route appealing when designing a kiosk, however some of the most successful kiosks are bespoke and respond to their setting with a contemporary design.

Ticket kiosk, Tintagel Castle, Cornwall (Humphrey Bolton)
Ticket kiosk, Tintagel Castle, Cornwall (Humphrey Bolton)

The ticket kiosk at Tintagel Castle embraces a challenging site and fits into the landscape. Whilst it uses timber, the kiosk is compromised by the stained timber finish, which is less successful compared to the naturally silvered timber around it. The finish has failed at the base of the kiosk and columns, and a silver-grey finish would have harmonised more successfully with the turf roof.

Is a universal design possible today?

As can be seen by the Tintagel kiosk, a kiosk can respond to the often demanding requirements of heritage sites, and when successfully incorporated, can create a sense of arrival yet respect the site. But, whilst bespoke kiosks in a contemporary design can succeed in integrating themselves into a landscape or ruin, should stand-alone kiosks continue to be constructed in the vein of traditional summer houses?

The Arts-and-Crafts ticket offices designed by Baines were successful in that whilst having a strong aesthetic, they were sympathetic to their environment. A good kiosk becomes a picturesque feature in the landscape — it fulfils a useful purpose and looks attractive in the process. This does not preclude a modern design — indeed part of the reason the Arts-and-Crafts became a successful style for kiosks was because it was a contemporary interpretation of traditional construction.

So, allowing for contextual adaptions, we might use a contemporary take on the Arts-and-Crafts to create our kiosks today — for instance, using the timeless timber of old, but revitalise the style with stainless steel elements in their construction. A kiosk which addresses its setting, yet is imbued with the mellow harmony of the Office of Works palette is on course to being a successful realisation.

Using this model — a contemporary interpretation of one made successful by the Office of Works — it is possible to create a new universal design pattern for today’s heritage sites. The twenty-first century kiosk will transform the visitor experience, and respond to the technologies which liberate the many possibilities for interpretation we now have.

I hope you have enjoyed this article and invite you to leave comments on the form at the bottom of this page. You can find out more about my thesis — A Prospect of Ruins – Discovery, exploration and contemplation — on my thesis page. I am currently in the second year of the Building Conservation PG Diploma course at the Architectural Association.

Image Credits

In this article the Heritage Calling blog charts 9 great railway stations lost in the midst of time, showing just how easily great buildings disappear. St Pancras from the Heritage Calling list of great railway stations could have easily been the 10th on this list, yet now it is a splendid terminus for Eurostar in London.

9 ‘Lost’ Railway Stations | Heritage Calling.

The AA Building Conservation first year group recently visited the Weald and Downland Open Air Museum in Sussex. The museum has a collection of mediaeval timber framed buildings from across the south of England. Richard Harris, an expert on medieval timber framed buildings, showed us how the museum’s approach to repairing the buildings has changed.

Earlier on in the museum's history a carpentry-focused repair was favoured. It sees complete loss of the original section of timber.

Earlier on in the museum’s history a carpentry-focused repair was favoured. It sees complete loss of the original section of timber.

Early-on a resin repair system was trialled.

Early-on a resin repair system was trialled.

The early resin repair accentuated the timber surface and brought about the idea of the "postman patch" repair, whereby the centre of the decayed timber is removed and the surface is adhered to the new repair.

The early resin repair accentuated the timber surface and brought about the idea of the “postman patch” repair, whereby the centre of the decayed timber is removed and the surface is adhered to the new repair.

One of my friends from school, Ben Powell, has recently shared the following music video, Rise.

Ben says:

“My new video ‘RISE’ is the result of my work with LA based composer Thomas Parisch. Thomas and I composed ‘RISE’ together by layering the sounds of both my electric and acoustic violins. Everything you hear was made and played on my violins apart from the percussion. Upon completion of the track, we felt it was worthy of a music video and this is the result!”

I particularly like the ephemeral qualities of Rise, and the evocative sounds of the violin case zip and rosining the bow at the start. I look forward to hearing more in the future.

I recently heard Portrait Gallery by Luke Howard on BBC Radio 3. Lovely. Here are a few of his pieces from his new CD Sun, Cloud – it was hard to select three!
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The subject of seating in churches stirs a variety of comments now; however, as was demonstrated at the Cambridgeshire Historic Churches Trust Spring Conference, this does not appear to be new. Indeed, as we well know, the image of the country church with a regimented procession of pews to the chancel arch was not always the case. Yet, we find this romantic image ingrained within the public perception. Church pews cannot change or are simply an obstruction to modern worship.

In many cases chairs (typically more suited to the local GP’s waiting room)  are installed in place of pews for the sake of flexibility. It was observed at the Spring Conference that these chairs frequently fail to rearrange themselves into any configuration other than the one they first appeared. Given the current interest surrounding church seating and the recent publication of Pews, Benches and Chairs by the Ecclesiological Society, it is worth giving existing church seating serious consideration.

There is still much to discover about the history of pews. It is not known where the oldest examples are, nor how many exist, let alone their exact age. As such, the importance of careful consideration and investigation with regard to pews is important when considering reordering. This fact parallels with how little is even known about Victorian pews, for many simple, or apparently catalogue-derived examples are found to be the work of important architects or craftsmen, and thus have intrinsic value within their setting.

Having established the mine field of church seating, it is worth looking at Jerry Sampson’s chapter in Pews, Benches and Chairs – you will find chapter seven on page 87. His research provides a useful starting point for identifying mediaeval seating. Looking closely at the joinery (most probably oak) one might find some clues, such as evidence of the straight-back mediaeval design being superseded with an angled Victorian back. The bench ends are often turned round, so the mediaeval seat will now face west. Perhaps unsurprisingly, signs of wear and repair are good clues. Look for surface attrition, repairs and at the construction, and drill holes in the top rails and poppy heads for candle holders.

It is important to note that the Victorians enjoyed reusing pew components and frequently cobbled together old pew ends with new seats. With this plethora of possibilities, in many churches, the pews should be inspected closely. Victorian pews present more of a problem. From page 309 of Pews, Benches and Chairs, the typical catalogue designs are depicted. These tend to hark back to their mediaeval predecessors; however the Victorian boards tend to be thinner than their mediaeval counterparts. Rustic tool marks and assembly numerals may feature as well.

Ultimately, further investigation will be required to discover the hand of a master craftsman or architect in the standard-design pews. Some nineteenth-century craftsmen copied mediaeval work with such skill as to make it difficult to tell from the original, even for the likes of Pevsner. Likewise, seemingly ‘pedestrian’ designs have been found to be copies made by celebrated workshops of mediaeval designs.

This therefore begs the question of why we do not reuse old benches to suit current demands as our Victorian predecessors? Where pews are to be uprooted and sold for salvage, there may an opportunity to recast them, pick choice elements and deliver new purpose-built seating. However, practical difficulties often prevent this happening, and in many churches there is a genuine need to provide more comfortable seating for both worship and other events such as concerts.

In my view, and with some careful thought, a system for pew reassembly into a new easy-to-move bench which satisfies the majority of concerns could be considered. With the best pews and elements kept and any catalogue fodder sold off, the new benches (used for most services) could be supplemented with lightweight staking chairs – or perhaps more desirably, stacking pews – wheeled-out when required. It would be interesting to trial such an exercise so to compare the cost with wholesale pew removal and chairing. Ultimately, it is up to our ingenuity to find a range of methods that work. We must investigate the pews in our churches, consider what should be kept, then implement our strategy for reuse, lest we sit in church only to metaphorically hear, ‘the doctor will see you now’.

Bibliography / further reading

Pews, benches and chairs: church seating in English parish churches from the fourteenth century to the present. Edited by Trevor Cooper and Sarah Brown, published July 2011 by the Ecclesiological Society. ISBN 978-0-946823-17-8. Paperback, 500 pages.

About this article

This article was written in June 2012, after attending the Spring Conference of the Cambridgeshire Historic Churches Trust for a practice technical bulletin.